Fuel Injection

In auto industry, there has been a constant competition between the different systems that send the fuel to the engine. The efficacy of these systems remains crucial to the fuel efficiency of the engine, making them a focus of technological refinement. Fuel Injections that push fuel into the engine are crucial to the development of new versions of automobiles.
Fuel Injection
Source - Wikimedia Commons (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AFuelinjector.png)

Fuel Injection refers to system or the instrument that injects fuel in the internal combustion engine of the vehicles. Their action is contrary to carburettors that such fuel into the engine.

Fuel Injection : An Introduction

All transport vehicles using fuels like gasoline, diesel or LPG are powered by internal combustion engines that burn fuel to obtain energy which moves the engine and the vehicle. The engine has a cycle that begins with the inflow of air and fuel in the engine, which is then burnt to produce power. The fuel is drawn to the engine in two ways. Either it is

sucked into it, as happens in case of a Carburettor, or fuel is injected into it by a Fuel Injection System.

In case of Carburettor, fuel is sucked with air by the vacuum created by the engine cycle. In case of fuel injection, fuel is forced into the engine in a measured quantity. In modern engines, this measured quantity is electronically controlled, through systems that constantly measure the fuel requirements of the engine. Such fuel injections are called ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION or EFI.

Types of Fuel Injection Systems

There are many variations of fuel injection system being used. However, primarily, there are two major types - Single Port Fuel Injections and Multi Port Fuel Injection.

In single port fuel injection, only one stream of fuel is injected. In multi port fuel injections, fuel is injected from multiple points in different parts of the engine simultaneously allowing and even better burning of fuel, lesser emissions and more power and fuel efficiency.

History of Fuel Injection

The first patent for a fuel injection was awarded in 1896 to E.J. Pennington for his motorbike. During the early decades of twentieth century, Carburettor ruled the gasoline engines, but fuel injection was common in diesel engines. During the First World War, it was used in aircrafts to avoid the effect of gravity on Carburettors.

In 1957, Chevrolet used a mechanical fuel injection for one of its engines. Afterwards, for a decade or so, fuel injection was more commonly seen in sports and racing vehicles.

The first electronic fuel injection was introduced by Bendix Corporation in 1957,

which was called Etectrojector. However, it did not succeed and had to be replaced by Carburettors. Later, Bosch developed J-Jectronic, a model that was followed by more refined ones later in 1970s and 80s.

The early electronic fuel injection systems used car speed to control the amount of fuel injected into engine in each cycle. Later sophistication enabled use of improved control by using air flow as a means to control fuel injection. A greater air flow requires indicates higher fuel injection.

Carburettor Vs. Fuel Injection

Carburettor is a mechanical device wherein fuel and air, both are sucked in by the movements of piston inside the engine. A faster working engine consumes more fuel, and sucks more fuel. Carburettor allows the air and fuel to mix in appropriate proportion.

Compared to the Carburettor, fuel injection allows air to be sucked but fuel is injected into the engine in measured amounts, which depend upon the need of engine as indicated by air flow. Electronic fuel injections are more accurate and deliver precise amounts of fuel, and thereby improve fuel efficiency as well as significantly reduce polluting emissions.

Advantages of Fuel Injection

Fuel injection, especially the modern multi port electronic fuel injections with electronic valves improves power output, fuel efficiency and emissions performance. Compared to Carburettors, fuel injections have a greater ability to accommodate alternative fuels, they are more reliability and allow smooth operation. The initial cost as well as maintenance cost is less in the long run. Lastly, they are environment friendly and help reduce pollution.

Fuel injection systems control the injection of fuel into the internal combustion engine. The greater accurateness of multi port electronic fuel injection system makes it a better choice for all type of engines for improving performance, power and efficiency of the vehicle.

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